I received my PCBs today and I see that I've made a mistake: the ESD-protection prevents the USB-host port from working right. Removing the resistor and capacitor (or not soldering them in the first place) allows it to work. Leaving those out just means a slightly less protected USB-port, otherwise the board works fine, so I'm not in a hurry to design a fix. I'll do it when I feel like it.
(The microUSB-port is missing, because Chinaman sent me wrong connectors -- they don't match the holes on the PCB. Just gotta wait for the right ones to arrive in the mail.)