I2C Detect Slave Method?

  • Good Day,

    I am looking at using the i2c functionality of the Onion 2+ to be able to "detect" connect i2c slaves. unfortunately my tests with both python i2c library and c library both show that the omega returns "success" when reading and writing to an i2c slave that is not even there.

    Does anyone know how to use i2c to detect if a slave is valid or not? i.e. If I try to "address" i2c slave "0x21" which is definitely not connected, how can I get some sort of error?


  • Hi,

    Just some feedback if you happen to stumble across this topic in desperation. So my analysis is that there must be a bug with the Onion 2 I2C implementation. With that said @t-gabor had a thread that described how he managed to overcome some of the i2c limitations by moving to a "bit-banged" i2c approach.

    For those interested the following method was used on a Omega Onion 2+ (firmware v0.1.10-b160):

    1. Install the relevant kernal modules (Thanks @t-gabor for compiling):

    This is done by downloading the above packages locally and running them in:
    opkg install --force-depends kmod-i2c-algo-bit_4.4.46-1_mipsel_24kc.ipk
    opkg install --force-depends kmod-i2c-gpio_4.4.46-1_mipsel_24kc.ipk
    opkg install --force-depends kmod-i2c-gpio-custom_4.4.46-2_mipsel_24kc.ipk

    the --force-depends is required as the onion thinks the kernel is at a too low version. if you are interested you can run:

    root@Omega-XXXX:~# opkg list-installed | grep kernel
    kernel - 4.4.46-1-611bddde2031bc44b7d050f62495d772

    In order to get the current kernel version, which you will find the last section of numbers are lower that the expected value for the compiled packages above.

    Anyhow what confused me for a good few hours was that the opkg install will show errors at the end even though it was successful (i.e. notice the "Installing" and "Configuring" sections):

    root@Omega-XXXX:~/ipk# opkg install --force-depends kmod-i2c-algo-bit_4.4.46-1_mipsel_24kc.ipk
    Installing kmod-i2c-algo-bit (4.4.46-1) to root...
    Configuring kmod-i2c-algo-bit.
    Collected errors:
     * satisfy_dependencies_for: Cannot satisfy the following dependencies for kmod-i2c-algo-bit:
     *      kernel (= 4.4.46-1-d0a487fc7d1c9f083b7de0fb8c2a7c07) *

    Once these modules are installed we need to load them using the following commands:

    omega2-ctrl gpiomux set i2c gpio
    insmod i2c-algo-bit
    insmod i2c-gpio
    insmod i2c-gpio-custom bus0=1,5,4

    with that you can now try the newly created /dev/i2c-1 device:

    i2cdetect -y 1

    And vola:

    root@Omega-XXXX:~# i2cdetect -y 1
         0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  a  b  c  d  e  f
    00:          -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    10: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    20: 20 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    30: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    40: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    50: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    60: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
    70: -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

    Anyhow to wrap things up you can do this setup automatically at bootup with the following init.d script. create using vi in /etc/init.d/I2Cbb

    #!/bin/sh /etc/rc.common
    # Creates bit-banged i2c-device /dev/i2c-1 on pins 5,4.
    # NOTE: This hides /dev/i2c-0!
    start() {
            omega2-ctrl gpiomux set i2c gpio
            insmod i2c-algo-bit
            insmod i2c-gpio
            insmod i2c-gpio-custom bus0=1,5,4
    stop() {
            rmmod i2c-gpio-custom
            rmmod i2c-gpio
            rmmod i2c-algo-bit
            omega2-ctrl gpiomux set i2c i2c

    And another hour or so of frustration and rebooting reminded me again of missing the basics, do not forget to enable and make executable the script!

    chmod 755 /etc/init.d/I2Cbb
    /etc/init.d/I2Cbb enable

    *** EDIT ***
    On an final note, using bitbanged I2C allows you to set the Onion I2C bus clock speed (SCL). To do this add the extra parameter to the the init.d script

    insmod i2c-gpio-custom bus0=1,5,4,x

    where x is is number based on the following formula:

    I2C speed (kHz) = 500 / x 


  • UFD, congratulations and thank you for sharing.

  • @UFD Thanks for this "solution" (or more workaround). This was the only way I was able to get my Python code towards a keller pressure meter work. So I'm lifting this fabioulus post

    I'm still unable to fix my related problem with write a byte wait 8ms then read 5 bytes without specifying register.

    there seems also to still be a open drain issue

    Why hasn't this been fixed in Omega2+? I have scanned several posts in the forum that probably has problems that are related to this. I2C is a vital bus doing smart IoT stuff for real. So if Onion would like to be part of commercial projects I2C needs to have top priority.
    Could any of the staff comment?

  • In case any body else is looking for this.

    If for example you wanted two I2C busses, you would do that like this.

    Example: using GPIO 14 for the second SDA and GPIO 16 for the 2nd SCL

    insmod i2c-gpio-custom bus0=1,5,4 bus1=2,14,16

    and you can then verify them with

    i2cdetect -y 1


    i2cdetect -y 2

  • @UFD Please have a look at my pull request https://github.com/openwrt/openwrt/pull/831
    It should fix all issues with I2C. It is using real I2C hardware of the chip (no bit-banging).

  • Hi,

    Im glad you guys found this useful!

    @Jeff-Seese Thanks for the additional information on spinning up multiple I2C channels (useful when you have fixed I2C address based devices).

    @Jan-Breuer I will certainly look into this. It would be amazing if "real" I2C worked on the Omega.

    Kind Regards,

  • @UFD said in I2C Detect Slave Method?:
    Hello everyone!

    How I can use these kmod's with another version of kernel?
    Now I have latest firmware and the kernel version is 4.4.74.

  • Is it possible to give links to newer compiled versions of (?):


    There is no longer a b160 image at: http://repo.onion.io/omega2/images/ for some mysterious reason.

    I have tried b159, but it gives me an "unable to open mmap file" error when I run "omega2-ctrl gpiomux set i2c gpio".

    b175 gives me a "failed to find i2c-algo-bit" error when I run "insmod i2c-algo-bit"

  • @George-Gerber, it is there, you may miss it because it falls under 0.1.10 i.e. omega2p-v0.1.10-b160.bin

    @Sergiy-Tarasov, I have had some success using what is most likely a hack and not recommended.

    1. Uncomment line 1 "reboot_core" in the file /etc/opkg/distfeeds.conf
    2. opkg update
    3. opkg --force-depends install kmod-i2c-gpio-custom
      Now the hack, because it was for a higher kenel version the libraries are installed to /lib/module/<kenel-version> so we need to copy them across to the current version, in my case:
    4. cp /lib/modules/4.4.131/* /lib/4.47/

    Then proceed with the insmod as before.


  • administrators

    @UFD we fixed the driver for the hardware I2C controller. The main enhancements are:

    • The i2cdetect command is now supported
    • clock stretching is supported
    • support for unlimited message length
    • support for repeated start sequences

    Check out this blog post for more details

  • @Lazar-Demin, Awesome news, thanks for letting me know. I will test very soon.

  • @Lazar-Demin Dear,
    Thank you for your support, but Clock stretching is not clear; i.e how to change clock for i2c, in my case it is 100 kHz and I wan to chage it
    what are the instructions for that,
    thank you in all cases.

  • administrators

    @Ammar-Assad the underlying driver supports clock stretching and will do so automatically, you don't have to specifically configure it.
    As far as I remember, the Omega2 should support all I2C devices running from 100 kHz to 400 kHz out of the box.

  • @Lazar-Demin
    Acutally I have upgraded my omega for that, it is still unclear for me how to controll clock speed, it is alway 100 kHz, the device is MPU9250

  • @Ammar-Assad Omega2(+)'s SCL clock frequency is 100kHz by default. According to its datasheet it's good for an MPU9250 slave.
    Do you want a slower (eg. 10kHz) or a faster (eg. 400kHz) bus?
    What is your real problem?

    @Ammar-Assad wrote

    it is still unclear for me how to controll clock speed, it is alway 100 kHz

    Clock stretching is not clear; i.e how to change clock for i2c, in my case it is 100 kHz and I wan to chage it

    As you know the original I2C communication speed (I2C Standard mode) was defined with a maximum of 100 kbit per second and the SCL clock is always determined / generated by the I2C master.
    The clock stretching is a completely different thing.

  • @György-Farkas Thanks for your concern, Actually I want to faster it if it is possible.

  • @Ammar-Assad
    MediaTek MT7688 Datasheet
    5.10 I2C Controller
    Module name: I2C Base address: (+10000900h)
    bit 27:16 SM0_CLK_DIV SIF master 0 clock divide value
    This is used to set the divider to generate expected SCL.

    • Omega2(+) default 100kHz
      40MHz / 400 = 100kHz
      400 = 0x190
    devmem 0x10000940
    • set to 400kHz
      40MHz / 100 = 400kHz
      100 = 0x64
    devmem 0x10000940 32 0x8064800F
    devmem 0x10000940

    Good luck!

  • @György-Farkas said in I2C Detect Slave Method?:


    Ooops! devmem not found unfortunately !

  • @Ammar-Assad Here you are a quick 'proof-of-concept' with a "full" BusyBox.

    # Omega2+
    root@Omega-99A5:/# oupgrade -v
    > Device Firmware Version: 0.2.2 b200
    root@Omega-99A5:/# cd ~
    root@Omega-99A5:~# wget https://www.busybox.net/downloads/binaries/1.28.1-defconfig-multiarch/busybox-mipsel
    root@Omega-99A5:~# chmod +x busybox-mipsel
    root@Omega-99A5:~# ./busybox-mipsel
    BusyBox v1.28.1 (2018-02-15 14:34:02 CET) multi-call binary.
    BusyBox is copyrighted by many authors between 1998-2015.
    Licensed under GPLv2. See source distribution for detailed
    copyright notices.
    Usage: busybox [function [arguments]...]
       or: busybox --list[-full]
       or: busybox --install [-s] [DIR]
       or: function [arguments]...
    	BusyBox is a multi-call binary that combines many common Unix
    	utilities into a single executable.  Most people will create a
    	link to busybox for each function they wish to use and BusyBox
    	will act like whatever it was invoked as.
    Currently defined functions:
    	[, [[, acpid, add-shell, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, arch, arp, arping, ash, awk, base64, basename, beep, blkdiscard, blkid,
    	blockdev, bootchartd, brctl, bunzip2, bzcat, bzip2, cal, cat, chat, chattr, chgrp, chmod, chown, chpasswd, chpst, chroot,
    	chrt, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm, conspy, cp, cpio, crond, crontab, cryptpw, cttyhack, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt,
    	delgroup, deluser, depmod, devmem, df, dhcprelay, diff, dirname, dmesg, dnsd, dnsdomainname, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg-deb, du,
    	dumpkmap, dumpleases, echo, ed, egrep, eject, env, envdir, envuidgid, ether-wake, expand, expr, factor, fakeidentd, fallocate,
    	false, fatattr, fbset, fbsplash, fdflush, fdformat, fdisk, fgconsole, fgrep, find, findfs, flock, fold, free, freeramdisk,
    	fsck, fsck.minix, fsfreeze, fstrim, fsync, ftpd, ftpget, ftpput, fuser, getopt, getty, grep, groups, gunzip, gzip, halt, hd,
    	hdparm, head, hexdump, hexedit, hostid, hostname, httpd, hush, hwclock, i2cdetect, i2cdump, i2cget, i2cset, id, ifconfig,
    	ifdown, ifenslave, ifplugd, ifup, inetd, init, insmod, install, ionice, iostat, ip, ipaddr, ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink,
    	ipneigh, iproute, iprule, iptunnel, kbd_mode, kill, killall, killall5, klogd, last, less, link, linux32, linux64, linuxrc, ln,
    	loadfont, loadkmap, logger, login, logname, logread, losetup, lpd, lpq, lpr, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lsof, lspci, lsscsi, lsusb,
    	lzcat, lzma, lzop, makedevs, makemime, man, md5sum, mdev, mesg, microcom, mkdir, mkdosfs, mke2fs, mkfifo, mkfs.ext2,
    	mkfs.minix, mkfs.vfat, mknod, mkpasswd, mkswap, mktemp, modinfo, modprobe, more, mount, mountpoint, mpstat, mt, mv, nameif,
    	nanddump, nandwrite, nbd-client, nc, netstat, nice, nl, nmeter, nohup, nproc, nsenter, nslookup, ntpd, nuke, od, openvt,
    	partprobe, passwd, paste, patch, pgrep, pidof, ping, ping6, pipe_progress, pivot_root, pkill, pmap, popmaildir, poweroff,
    	powertop, printenv, printf, ps, pscan, pstree, pwd, pwdx, raidautorun, rdate, rdev, readahead, readlink, readprofile,
    	realpath, reboot, reformime, remove-shell, renice, reset, resize, resume, rev, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm, rpm2cpio,
    	rtcwake, run-init, run-parts, runlevel, runsv, runsvdir, rx, script, scriptreplay, sed, sendmail, seq, setarch, setconsole,
    	setfattr, setfont, setkeycodes, setlogcons, setpriv, setserial, setsid, setuidgid, sh, sha1sum, sha256sum, sha3sum, sha512sum,
    	showkey, shred, shuf, slattach, sleep, smemcap, softlimit, sort, split, ssl_client, start-stop-daemon, stat, strings, stty,
    	su, sulogin, sum, sv, svc, svlogd, swapoff, swapon, switch_root, sync, sysctl, syslogd, tac, tail, tar, taskset, tcpsvd, tee,
    	telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, tftpd, time, timeout, top, touch, tr, traceroute, traceroute6, true, truncate, tty, ttysize,
    	tunctl, ubiattach, ubidetach, ubimkvol, ubirename, ubirmvol, ubirsvol, ubiupdatevol, udhcpc, udhcpd, udpsvd, uevent, umount,
    	uname, unexpand, uniq, unix2dos, unlink, unlzma, unshare, unxz, unzip, uptime, users, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi,
    	vlock, volname, w, wall, watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, whois, xargs, xxd, xz, xzcat, yes, zcat, zcip
    root@Omega-99A5:~# ./busybox-mipsel devmem 0x10000940
    root@Omega-99A5:~# ./busybox-mipsel devmem 0x10000940 32 0x8064800F
    root@Omega-99A5:~# ./busybox-mipsel devmem 0x10000940

    FW 0.2.2 b200 - presently the divider is '0x18F = 399' instead of '0x190 = 400'.
    Please ask one of Onion administrators ( @Zheng-Han @Lazar-Demin @Pavel-Metrokhin) why ;-)

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